Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems
Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) represent a novel method of measuring blood glucose concentrations under real-life conditions. CGMS devices were first developed to assess glucose excursions in diabetic patients using exogenous insulin. However, more recently they are also applied investigating the glucoregulatory capacity of type 2 diabetes patients during nutritional and/or exercise intervention. The main focus in our research is to obtain glycemic stability in type 2 diabetes patients by the implementing lifestyle interventions. Through the application of CGMS we can study the different effects of nutritional modulation and/or exercise interventions under standardized dietary, but otherwise free living conditions on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes patients and normoglycemic control subjects.
In our lab, we apply the GlucoDay®S system. This device is an ambulant continuous glucose monitoring system based on the microdialysis technique. The CGMS consists of a peristaltic pump that pumps a saline solution through a microdialysis fiber; the subcutaneous interstitial fluid is taken up by the microdialysis fiber and is transported to the measuring cell. The glucose sensor consists of immobilized glucose oxidase and measures the glucose concentration every min for up to 48 h. The entire device, including the perfusion solution and the waste-bag, weighs about 250 g and is worn in a pouch under the subjects’ clothes. The efficacy and the accuracy of the GlucoDay® device has been validated for both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The main advantage of this system is that it allows accurate glucose assessment under real-life conditions without restraining the person wearing the device.
With this device and dedicated software we are able to:
- Measure glucose concentrations at 3 min intervals for up to 48 h
- Directly determine the prevalence of hyper- and hypoglycemic periods
- Assess glucose responses over specific time periods
- Determine prevalence of postprandial hyperglycemia.